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Know the Basic Concepts of Sharia Insurance

Some Muslims assume that insurance is the same as opposing qodlo and qadar or contrary to destiny. Islam basically recognizes that accidents, misfortunes, and death are God's destiny. This can not be denied. It's just that we as human beings are also ordered to make plans to face the future. Allah says in the letter of Al-Hashr: 18, which means "O ye who believe put your trust in Allah and let every self-pay attention to what has been done for tomorrow (future) and pious you to Allah. God knows what you do. " Obviously in this verse, we are commanded to plan what we will do for the future.

In the Qur'an of Joseph's letter: 43-49, God portrays the example of a human effort to establish a system of protection against the possibilities of the future. In summary, this verse tells of the Egyptian king's question of his dream to Joseph. Where the king of Egypt dreamed of seeing seven fat cows eaten by seven skinny cows, and he also saw seven stalks of green wheat bear fruit and seven stalks that dried red did not bear fruit.

The prophet Joseph as told in the letter of Joseph, in this case, answered that the king and his people plant seven years and of the results should be kept partly. Then after that, there will come a very tough seven years, who spend what is saved to face the difficult times, except for a little of what is stored.

It is clear that in this verse we are encouraged to try to maintain survival by protecting the possibility of a bad condition. And it is very clear that the above verse states that it is not incompatible with destiny, even God suggests efforts toward future planning with a system of protection known in the insurance mechanism.

So, if the system of protection or insurance is justified, the next question is: does the insurance we know today (conventional insurance) meets other requirements in the Islamic muamalat concept. In the conventional insurance mechanism, especially life insurance, there are at least three things that are still forbidden by the scholars, namely: the existence of elements of gharar (unclear funds), elements maisir (gambling / gambling) and usury (interest). These three points will be explained in a detailed explanation of the difference between conventional and sharia insurance.

Sharia life insurance and conventional life insurance have the same goal of managing or managing risk. The fundamental difference between the two is how to manage conventional insurance risk management in the form of risk transfer from participants to the insurance company (risk transfer) while sharia life insurance embraces the principle of help by sharing risk among the participants of life insurance (risk sharing).

In addition to the different ways of managing risk, there are differences in how to manage the savings element of insurance products. Fund management in sharia life insurance embraces sharia investment and is free from the ribawi element.

In detail the difference between sharia life insurance and conventional life insurance can be seen in the following description:

Contract or Akad
Clarity of contract or contract in practice muamalah be the principle because it will determine whether or not Sharia legitimately. Similarly, the contract between the participant and the insurance company. Conventional insurance implements a contract which in sharia is called a contract of sale and purchase (tabaduli).

In this contract must meet the terms of the contract of sale. The ambiguity of the issue of the amount of premium to be paid because it depends on the age of the participant which only God knows when we die causes conventional insurance to contain so-called gharar-the unexplained nature of the contract that leads to the exchange of property in conventional insurance in practice legally flawed. So in sharia life insurance contract used not a contract of sale but the contract help (takafuli). So sharia life insurance uses what is called a tabarru contract which can be interpreted as a donation or donation. This contract is a legitimate alternative and is justified in breaking away from practices that are forbidden to conventional insurance.

The purpose of this tabarru 'fund is to provide good funds with sincere intentions for the purpose of mutual help one with another fellow Sharia insurance participants if some of them affected by the disaster. Therefore tabarru 'funds are deposited in a special account, where in the event of a risk, the claim fund is given from the tabarru' fund account which is intended by all participants for the sake of helping you.

Al-Mudharabah Contract
The above explanation, regarding tabarru' contract, is a grant allocated in case of disaster. While the elements in life insurance can also be saving. In sharia life insurance, savings or investments must comply with sharia.

In this case, the pattern of profit-sharing investments is the hallmark where the insurance company is merely the fund manager collected from the participants. Technically, al-mudaraba is a business cooperation agreement between two parties where the first party provides all (100 percent) of capital, while the other party becomes the manager.
Mudharabah business profit is divided according to the agreement set forth in the contract, whereas if the loss, borne by the owner of capital during the loss is not due to negligence in the manager. Should the loss be due to the manager's fraud or constraint, then the manager should be responsible for the loss.

The production sharing contract is disappointed in advance so that if a profit occurs then the division will follow the profit-sharing contract. Suppose the profit-sharing contract is 60:40, where participants get 60 percent of the profits while the insurance company gets 40 percent of the profits.

In relation to investment, which is one element in insurance premiums, must fulfill the Islamic shari'ah which does not recognize what is commonly called usury. All conventional insurers invest their funds with interest mechanisms.

Thus conventional insurance is difficult to avoid usury. While sharia insurance daolam invest should save funds to various investments based on Islamic sharia with al-mudaraba system.

No Hanged funds
In the conventional insurance known scorch fund, where participants can not continue the payment of premiums and want to resign before the maturity. Similarly, conventional non-saving (non-savings) life insurance or loss insurance, if the contract terminates and no claim occurs, the insurance premium paid is forfeited or becomes the profits of the insurance company.

In the concept of Takaful insurance, the mechanism does not recognize the charred fund. Participants who have just entered for one reason or another want to resign, then the funds or premiums that have been paid previously can be taken back unless a small portion of it is intended for tabarru 'funds that can not be taken.
Similarly, general sharia insurance, if the contract expires and no claim, the company returns part of the premium with the profit sharing pattern, eg 60:40 or 70:30 in accordance with the contract agreement in advance. In this case, it is very likely that the premiums paid early in the year can be recouped and the amount is highly dependent on the level of investment in the year.

The benefits of Sharia Insurance
Sharia insurance can be an alternative choice of protection for Muslims who want products that are in accordance with Islamic law. This product can also be an option for followers of other religions who view the concept of shariah just for them. Sharia is a universal principle or system which can be exploited by anyone who is interested.

Thus a glimpse review of Takaful insurance. Hopefully, this review adds to your insight and knowledge.

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