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Akad Tabarru 'in Asuransi Syariah

Not Same between conventional insurance that embraces the concept of risk transfer, the concept of Takaful is sharing risk. In this Takaful insurance, there is a concept of mutual help in the form of akad tabarru'.

Sharia insurance is a mutual protection effort and help among some people through investments in the form of assets and/or tabarru' by providing a pattern of return to deal with certain risks through a contract (engagement) in accordance with sharia. Akad tabarru' in Takaful Insurance is a contract to transfer ownership of one's property/funds to another person by way of grant/charity/alms.

In the management of funds in saving products (sharia life insurance) there is a separation of funds, namely tabarru' funds (donations) and the funds of participants, so do not recognize the term charred funds. As for term insurance (life) and general insurance are all tabarru'. Read: Sharia or Conventional Insurance?

Tabarru 'comes from the word tabarra' a-yatabarra' u-tabarru'an, which means a grant, a benevolence fund or a charity. In the context of the contract in Takaful insurance, tabarru' intends to give the fund of virtue with sincere intention sincerely for the purpose of mutual help among fellow Sharia insurance participants if any of them who experienced the disaster.

The concept of risk in sharia insurance itself is sharing of risk, where there is a process of mutual bearing between one participant with other participants. In this sharia insurance tabarru' funds collected in a pool of funds, where as later there will be insurance members who experience disasters and make claims, funds will be taken from tabarru' funds in accordance with an agreed contract. Read: Yuk, Know Sharia Unit Insurance Products Link

On Islamic insurance contributions or contributions consist of elements tabarru 'and savings (which does not contain elements of usury). Tabarru 'is calculated from the mortality table but without interest calculation. For the payment of his claim came from the tabarru' account, where the participants bore each other. So if one of the participants gets calamity, then the other participant shares the risk.

The existence of tabarru' funds will eliminate the gharar factor (element of unclearness) and maysir (gambling element) in the practice of Takaful insurance. Regulation of the Minister of Finance No. 18/010/2010 emphasizes that there is the separation of account and purpose of use and the function of separate recording to really ensure that tabarru' funds for the purpose of helping-help are completely pure and not mixed with the company's operational funds.

Sharia or Conventional Insurance?

Maybe all this time we ask, what is the difference between Sharia Insurance with Conventional Insurance? Then, what's the difference?

asuransisyariah Sharia premium fund management mechanism. In accordance with the principles underlying the implementation of Sharia Insurance, then all funds collected from insurance policyholders will be managed in accordance with the principles of sharia. Corporate profits are derived from profit sharing of insurance policyholders' funds developed under the profit-sharing principle ( mudaraba ).

Mudharabah is a widespread concept used in sharia business and seems to have become a trend so that every Syariah-based financial institution in Indonesia uses this concept. Definition of Mudharabah: Contract of cooperation between the owner of the fund/customer/insured (shahibul maal) with the entrepreneur / insurer (mudharib) to undertake a joint venture. The gain gained is shared between the two with the ratio of the previously agreed ratio.

The policyholders, in this case, are domiciled as the owner of capital ( shohibul mal ) and Asuransi Syariah serves as the holder of amanah (mudharib). Any premium paid by the policyholder will be included in the company's Tabarru account, which is a collection of funds that have been intended by the participants as a contribution and a virtue for the purpose of helping each other and helping each other.

Funds of the policyholder prior to further management are separated into two groups, namely the Shareholder Fund and Participant Fund (Premium), and each fund has the separate accounting. The proceeds of the development of funds after deducting the insurance expense (claims and reinsurance premiums) shall be divided between the policyholder and the company according to the principle of al-mudaraba in a fixed ratio of which the amount has been determined at the beginning of the closing of the insurance policy. Example: 70% of the company and 30% of all participants. Illustration of fund management mechanism can be seen in the following flowchart.

comparison Well, so there is a spirit of help that is built among the policyholders in Takaful insurance. This spirit of help is manifested in tabarru funds, which is a collection fund sought by policyholders to be used to bear the risk.

(From various sources)

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